Addition of the Filioque
381 until 1014, the Latins and the Greeks acknowledged one common creed
called the Nicene-Constantinoplian Creed.
creeds were practically identical until the Latins added a phrase to
the creed called the Filioque. Filioque is a Latin
phrase meaning and the Son.
is the original wording of the creed:
in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the Giver of Life, Who proceedeth from
the Father, Who with the Father and the Son together is worshiped
is the creed with the Latin addition:
believe in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the giver of life, who proceeds
from the Father and the Son. With the
Father and the Son he is worshipped and glorified.
The heretical phrase
"AND THE SON" was first added by the Latin Third Council of
Toledo, Spain, in 589 AD. This fateful formula was not officially adopted
by Old Rome until the year 1014—over 600 years after the Council
Pope from (1012 - 1024).
FILIOQUE (and the Son) was adopted
during the pontificate of Benedict VIII.
II was unholy Roman Emperor.
legitimate Roman Emperor (Constantine IX), reigned at Constantinople.
II (972 - 1024).
Unholy Roman Emperor from 1002 to 1024.
The adoption of
the heretical formula was a power play by Old Rome:
This mutual agreement
between Rome and Constantinople, to say it once more, was maintained
until the eleventh century, when, during the coronation of the German
emperor Henry II (1014), the fateful formula was finally adopted in
Rome as well. As a result of this adoption, the altered creed became
standard throughout the West. Inevitably, the scope of the debate
widened as well. Before long, Rome was justifying the alteration by
its own doctrinal authority. As papal apologists were to argue, it
was sufficient that the Roman pontiff had declared it dogma; by virtue
of his Petrine power, he was not subject to conciliar judgment.
(Papadakis, The Christian East and the Rise of the Papacy,
It was never accepted
by the Greek because Joshua stated plainly that the Spirit proceeds
from the Father . . . and not from the Son:
Those Scriptures make
it very, very plain that the Son and the Holy Spirit are the 2 hands of
when the Comforter is come, whom I will send unto you from the Father,
even the Spirit of truth, which proceedeth from the Father, he shall
testify of me.
And I will pray
the Father, and he shall give you another Comforter, that he may abide
with you for ever.
the Comforter, which is the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send
in my name, he shall teach you all things, and bring all things to
your remembrance, whatsoever I have said unto you. (John
of Hippo Regius was the originator of the creedal addition!!
of Hippo Regius in North Africa was the most powerful and influential
teacher of the Latin church. Most of the false doctrines that emerged
from that church can be traced right back to him.
of these false doctrines include:
Augustine also laid
the groundwork for the use of DISGUISED mercenaries in the age long
Vatican war against the saints. Some of these DISGUISED mercenaries
of Hippo Regius (354-430).
was a bishop in Hippo Regius from 395 to 430.
prolific writer, his main job was to convince the millions of
North African Christians (called Donatists) to join the Church
was to be implemented by persuasion if possible . . . but by force
Hippo Regius in North Africa.
wrote a treatise entitled On The Trinity in 15 books. In those
books he planted the seed for the later development of the addition
of the Filioque clause to the creed:
The Greeks could never
accept such new . . . and to their eyes blasphemous doctrine.
as to be born, in respect to the Son, means to be from the Father;
so to be sent, in respect to the Son, means to be known to be from
the Father. And as to be the gift of God in respect to the Holy Spirit,
means to proceed from the Father; so to be sent, is to be known to
proceed from the Father. Neither can we say
that the Holy Spirit does not also proceed from the Son, for the same
Spirit is not without reason said to be the Spirit both of the Father
and of the Son. Nor do I see what else He intended to signify,
when He breathed on the face of the disciples, and said, Receive the
Holy Spirit. For that bodily breathing, proceeding from the body with
the feeling of bodily touching, was not the substance of the Holy
Spirit, but a declaration by a fitting sign, that the Holy Spirit
proceeds not only from the Father, but also from the Son. (Augustine,
On the Trinity, book IV, ch. 20).
Photius the Great refuted the Filioque
the members of the Orthodox Church were horrified at this unauthorized
change to the centuries old Nicene-Constantinoplean Creed.
of the foremost opponents of this innovation was Saint Photius, Patriarch
of Constantinople. He wrote a brilliant thesis refuting Augustine and
the Great (820-893).
Patriarch from 858 to 886.
was a great champion of Orthodoxy against this new addition
to the creed.
of his bold stand for the Truth, he was deposed from his see
in 867, but 10 years later he was reinstated, and served faithfully
by Saint Photius.
is a small sample of his writings against the creedal addition:
if the Son is begotten of the Father, and if the Spirit proceeds from
the Father and the Son, it would not be an innovation in respect of
the Spirit if another should proceed from Him. In
accord with their mad opinion, therefore, not three, but four hypostases
could be inferred, or rather an infinitude, because the fourth could
produce another, and that one yet another, until they would surpass
even pagan polytheism.
it is possible to utter this sort of argument against them. If the
Son received all that He possesses from the Father, thence also would
He gain the faculty of being the cause of the procession of the Spirit.
But whence this favoritism in which the Son is distinguished as a
cause of the procession of the Spirit, while the Spirit is deprived
of equal prerogatives? For the Spirit has equality of honor, since
He came forth with equal rank and honor from the same essence.
not the Spirit divided into two by them? The one part proceeds from
the Father, the true and first cause (for He is uncaused), and the
other part from a secondary, derived cause (for the Son is caused).
Thus this heresy does not only flaunt the Spirit's difference and
distinction in rank, relation, and cause, but it dares to debase our
religion from a Trinity to a Quaternity. Indeed, no effort is neglected
to malign everything in the transcendently good Trinity and Creator
of all! (Saint Photius, On the Mystagogy of the
Holy Spirit, p. 86).
other great Greek theologians refuted the Filioque but their writings
were destroyed when the Crusaders sacked Constantinople.
Filioque from the Orthodox Wiki
Aristeides. The Christian East and the Rise of the Papacy.
St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, Crestwood, New York, 1994.
Photios. On the Mystagogy of the Holy Spirit. Studion Publishers,
New York, 1985.
© 2013 by Patrick Scrivener
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