On April 29, 1945, just as World War II in Europe was about to end, a gruesome sight was published in newspapers worldwide.

Iconic photo of Mussolini and his mistress hanging upside down.
Iconic photo of Mussolini and his
mistress hanging upside down.


On April 29, 1945, Benito Mussolini, his mistress Claretta Petacci, and 15 other Fascists were displayed hanging upside down on meat hooks in Milan's Piazzale Loretto.

That was just 8 days before the war ended with the official surrender of Nazi Germany to Russia on May 8, 1945.



Some of the Fascists who were hung upside down in Milan's Piazzale Loretto.
Photo of the Fascists hanging upside
down in Milan's Piazzale Loretto.

"Communist partisans" were blamed for the murder of Mussolini and his mistress. Mussolini had so many chances to escape to Switzerland, but he knew that surrender to U.S. general Mark Clark, with his top secret Churchill correspondence, could possibly save his neck from the hangman's noose . . . or a firing squad!!

The "Father" of Fascism was born in Dovia di Predappio, a small town in the province of Forlì in Emilia-Romagna on July 29, 1883. In the Fascist era, Predappio was dubbed "Duce's town", and Forlì was "Duce's city."

Owing to his father's political leanings, Mussolini was named Benito after Mexican reformist President Benito Juárez, while his middle names Andrea and Amilcare were from Italian socialists Andrea Costa and Amilcare Ciprian.

Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini
–1945), at age 16.

In 1902, Benito Mussolini was among dozens of young men chosen by King Victor Emmanuel III to attend spying school in the British Crown Colony of Switzerland.

Mussolini was very bright and soon mastered English and German.

During that time he also trained to be a "journalist."


Mussolini in Switzerland
Mussolini in Switzerland

During his stay in Switzerland, Mussolini was "discovered" by a British Secret Service agent named Angelica Balabanoff. Angelica introduced him to Vladimir Lenin and her fellow Russian revolutionaries.

Angelica Balabanoff
Angelica Balabanoff

Financing for the Bolshevik and Fascist Revolutions came from gold stolen from the Boers of South Africa.

The gold was stored in massive vaults buried deep in the mountains of Switzerland.

In 1904, Angelica Balabanoff introduced Mussolini to fellow revolutionary Vladimir Lenin.

Vladimir Lenin (1870–1924)
Vladimir Lenin (1870–1924)
circa 1900.

Here is an excerpt from a biography of Mussolini and his many mistresses:

The most significant conference held in Switzerland while Mussolini was living in the country was the commemoration to mark the thirty-third anniversary of the Paris Commune on 18th March 1904, with the participation of many of the exiles in Switzerland, including the Russians. It was on this occasion that Angelica Balabanoff first met Mussolini: she was struck by how unhappy he seemed. She described him as restless and very shabbily dressed, so much so that, even among a crowd of impoverished immigrants, he stood out. (Olla, Il Duce and His Women, p. 62).

When Balabanoff showed him some of the South African gold his spirits soon picked up and his appearance improved sartorially. "Comrade" Balabanoff became Mussolini's mistress and "handler" but Mussolini did not consider Communism appropriate for monarchial and Papal Italy.

King Umberto I was assassinated in 1900

On July 29, 1900, "anarchist" Gaetano Bresci assassinated the reigning Italian monarch, King Umberto I, by firing 4 shots of a pistol at him. The king always resisted the tremendous pressure exerted on him to restore the temporal power of the Papacy. When it became apparent that he would not budge from his firm position, Pope Leo XIII and the British Secret Service decided to eliminate him violently.

King Umberto I (1884–1900).
King Umberto I (1884
King from 1878 to July 1900.

With the blessing of Pope Leo XIII, King Umberto I was assassinated by the British Secret Service on July 29, 1900.

King Umberto I adamantly opposed the restoration of Pope Leo's temporal power.

His son and successor, Victor Emmanuel III, was a physical and mental midget, and one of the last kings to misrule Italy.

King Victor Emmanuel III
King Victor Emmanuel III
King from August 1900 to 1946.

Nicknamed "the Dwarf" because of his diminutive stature, even Queen Victoria towered over him. The king was an Anglophile and spoke English fluently:

Although like all male children of the dynasty he had a strict military upbringing, he was unusual in possessing a less provincial and more intellectual bent than his forbears. He had an English nurse, followed by an Irish governess who was the widow of a colonel in the British army, and he remembered speaking more English than Italian until his fourteenth birthday.' Until the age of nineteen his education was then entrusted to Colonel Oslo, a good soldier and exacting disciplinarian who had scholarly and artistic tastes. Oslo taught his not very appreciative pupil to read some of Horace and Virgil in the original Latin, and succeeded in giving him an abiding interest in history and numismatics. (Mack Smith, Italy and its Monarchy, p. 147).

The king also felt that the British were responsible for the Franco-Prussian War and the loss of the Papal States. In 1902, he chose a select group of promising young men to attend the British spying school in the British Crown Colony of Switzerland. Mussolini was among the "chosen few."

Mussolini's infamous October 1922 March on Rome!!

In October 1922, Mussolini and his infamous Blackshirts marched on Rome and Fascism was born. Incredibly, the Fascist Revolution was also engineered by the very same man who engineered the Bolshevik Revolution.

His name was Sir George Buchanan and he was the British ambassador to the kingdom of Italy from 1919 to 1921.

Lord Curzon (1859–1925).
Lord Curzon

In October 1919, "Mr. British Empire" Lord Curzon appointed Sir George Buchanan to the position of ambassador to Italy.

In 1917, working from the British embassy in St. Petersburg, Sir George Buchanan engineered the Bolshevik Revolution and the rise of dictator Vladimir Lenin.

Lord Curzon expected him to repeat his success in Italy.


Sir George Buchanan
Sir George Buchanan

Lord Curzon–former Viceroy of India–was the British Empire personified. A rabid Russophobe, he was British foreign secretary from 1919 to 1924. Buchanan arrived in Italy in October 1919 and he worked closely with Italian foreign minister Count Carlo Sforza.

Count Carlo Sforza
Count Carlo Sforza

Machiavellian Count Carlo Sforza was the Italian foreign minister who worked closely with Buchanan in bringing Mussolini to power.

Much to his regret, Buchanan could not stay in Italy and witness the Fascist putsch.

His wife's fatal illness caused him to return to London in November 1921.


Mussolini marching on Rome
Mussolini marching on Rome
flanked by 4 generals.

Due to his wife's fatal illness, Buchanan had to return to London in November 1921. Had he stayed, Mussolini's March on Rome would have occurred sooner. Unlike Russia, Buchanan did not want a Communist regime but an ultramontane Papal regime with all opposition brutally eliminated.

Blackshirts smashing skulls and
Blackshirts smashing skulls and
beating all into submission.

The first major victim of the new Fascist regime was Italian patriot Giacomo Matteotti.

For speaking openly against Mussolini in the Italian Parliament, Matteotti was brutally killed and buried in a shallow grave 20 km from Rome.

Giacomo Matteotti
Giacomo Matteotti

There was an international outcry at the murder of such a prominent politician, but the king's silence was deafening, as Mussolini's Blackshirts browbeat the entire nation into submission. It was a repeat of the aftermath of the Russian Revolution and a precursor to Nazi Germany.

Mussolini was created a Knight of the Holy Sepulchre in 1929

With all opposition to the Fascist regime brutally silenced, King Victor Emmanuel III ordered Mussolini to sign a Concordat with the Vatican.

Pope Pius X I.
Pope Pius X I.
Pope from 1922 to 1939.

In February 1929, Mussolini signed the Lateran Accords on behalf of the king.

The Accords gave the Pope 110 acres (0.44 square km) which became known as Vatican City State.

Italy now had 3 rulers: Pope Pius XI, Victor Emmanuel III, and Mussolini.

Mussolini signing the Lateran Accords
Mussolini signing the Lateran Accords
on behalf of the king.

From that time onward, Italy was a triumvirate with 3 rulers: the Pope-king, the king of Italy, and Mussolini. Any creature with 2 head is a monster but this new regime was a cyclops. Immediately after signing the Accords, Mussolini was honored with the flattering title: Knight of the Holy Sepulchre:

King Vittorio Emanuele III of the Royal House of Savoy, who reigned in Rome from 1900 to 1946, had inherited the traditional family title of "king of Jerusalem." At its seizure of power in 1922, the Fascist regime sought to foster the historical association between the monarchy and the holy places and Fascist consuls assiduously cultivated Italian prestige in the Holy City.
In February 1927, a Fascist Party official wrote to the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre, to which Barlassina as Latin patriarch had the right to nominate knights, observing "how greatly H. E. Mussolini has at heart the prestige of Catholicism and Italy in Palestine; and how it is always the wish of the Duce to acquire greater influence through our joint institutions which have such historical and political importance." Following the signature of the Lateran Treaties in 1929, Mussolini was decorated with the insignia of knight first class. By accepting the decoration, he symbolically associated himself with the protection of the Church of the Resurrection. (Cohen, Saving the Holy Sepulchre, p. 72).

Financed by the Swiss BIS (Bank for International Settlements), Mussolini began a military buildup with the ultimate goal of replacing the British Mandate in Palestine.

The first major foreign victim of the new Fascist regime was Libyan patriot Omar Mukhtar "the Lion of the Desert." Under orders from Victor Emmanuel III, Italy invaded Libya in 1911. It was the precursor to World War I and the first war to use airplanes and armored vehicles in combat.

Libyan Omar Mukhtar
Libyan Omar Mukhtar

Omar Mukhtar"the Lion of the Desert" put up a heroic 20-year struggle against Italian occupation of Libya.

Mussolini ordered general Rudolfo Graziani to hunt him down and eliminate all opposition to Fascism.

In 1931, the 73-year-old freedom fighter was captured and hanged by order of general Graziani.

Omar Mukhtar was hanged by order of Mussolini on Sept. 16, 1931.
Omar Mukhtar was hanged by order of Mussolini on Sept. 16, 1931.

General Graziani was known as "the Butcher of Fezzan" as his pacification of Libya was BRUTAL with his British advisers applying the tactics and lessons they had learned from the Boer War. Omar Mukhtar was offered his life and a substantial retirement pension if he would turn traitor and betray his people . . . but he remained steadfast to the end.

General Rudolfo Graziani
General Rudolfo Graziani

General Graziani's pacification of Libya was brutal.

His British advisers applied the tactics they used in the brutal Boer War.

Hundreds of men and WOMEN were hung for resisting the occupation.

General Graziani with fellow
General Graziani with fellow
Fascists in Libya.

In order to starve the Libyans, and cut off aid from Egypt, general Graziani erected a barbed wire fence across Libya which he called "Hadrian's Wall."

Victor Emmanuel and Mussolini
Victor Emmanuel and Mussolini
on maneuvers in 1936.

One of the flattering titles of the Italian king was "king of Jerusalem."

Using Mussolini as his proxy or puppet the king began the long bloody march to Jerusalem.

Mussolini used airplanes and poison gas against Ethiopian tribesmen armed with spears and swords!!

The Ethiopians defended their country
The Ethiopians defended their country
bravely with spears and swords.

The Italian army, under the direction of dictator Benito Mussolini, invaded Ethiopian territory on October 2, 1935. They occupied the capital Addis Ababa on May 5. Emperor Haile Selassie pleaded with the League of Nations for aid in resisting the Italians. Nevertheless the country was formally annexed on May 9, 1936, and the Emperor went into exile.

Antonio Barluzzi
Antonio Barluzzi


Mussolini was supposed to march triumphantly into Jerusalem in 1942, and construction was supposed to start on a new Church of the Holy Sepulchre.

With their abysmal battlefield performance, Mussolini soon learned that modern Italians had nothing in common with the ancient Romans.


The new basilica would have rivaled Constantine's Church.
The new basilica would have rivaled
Constantine's Church.

What upset all his plans was the Nazi postponement of Operation Barbarossa until June 22, 1941, and Hitler's subsequent failure to enter Moscow.

Mussolini blamed the "partisans" for the Massacre in Rome!!

By July 1943, King Victor Emmanuel saw the handwriting on the wall and he knew that unless Hitler's atomic bomb was ready in time the war was lost. On July 25, Mussolini was "arrested" and bundled into an ambulance. "Prisoner" Mussolini was moved around the country before being sent to Campo Imperatore, a mountain resort in Abruzzo where he was completely isolated.

Via Rasella, Roma.
Via Rasella, Roma.

On March 23, 1944, a Gestapo patrol was ambushed by Italian "partisans" as they marched down Via Rasella.

In reality this false flag operation was coordinated by British secret agent Peter Tompkins.

These were the same "partisans" who would later murder Mussolini and his mistress.

Street view of Via Rasella.
Street view of Via Rasella.

In September 1943, Mussolini was providently rescued by a German commando squad led by Otto Skorzeny. Like Pope Pius XII, he blamed the "partisans" for the 1944 Massacre in Rome:

The news of this outrage spread rapidly in Italy, and during that spring and early summer the activities of the partisans in the north were greatly increased and reprisals became more and more savage. In May nearly a hundred miners were shot by the Germans in a single small village; a few weeks later the execution of 400 prisoners and 110 deserters was announced; shortly afterwards 2,000 men were forcibly deported to Germany for blowing up a bridge over a river in Piedmont. The acts of sabotage increased after the collapse of the Gustav Line and the fall of Cassino until, at the time Rome was liberated in June 1944, they were of almost daily occurrence. (Hibbert, Il Duce, p. 270).

The attack by the "partisans" on the Nazis in Rome did not shorten the war in Italy by one single day.

Tompkins and general Wolff coordinated the assassination of Mussolini!!

Fascist Italy was really the exemplar or precursor to Nazi Germany, so it is amazing that Mussolini and his mistress were not "suicided" and then bundled off into retirement in Argentina. When Italy started to lose to the Allies in North Africa, Mussolini was nicknamed the "Sawdust Caesar." The only thing that he had in common with Julius was the fact that he always wrote everything down.

British spy Peter Tompkins
British spy Peter Tompkins

Peter Tompkins worked for the U.S. OSS (Office of Strategic Services).

Up to 1945, Tompkins worked in the North of Italy for the parent British organization known as SOE (Special Operations Executive).

SS general Karl Wolff was Hitler's spymaster and together with Tompkins he coordinated the assassination.

SS general Karl Wolff
SS general Karl Wolff

Wolff–another fake "Jew"– with a prominent proboscis was the counterpart of field marshall von Manstein. Wolff commanded the retreating Nazi forces in the North of Italy at the time of the assassination.

Mussolini was very anxious to surrender to general Mark Clark because he had a mountain of incriminating evidence on Winston Churchill:

Along with the well-known story of the copies of the "Churchill" documents given to Hidaka, there still remains the even more mysterious and unclear story of the Duce's diaries, which according to another popular account were also handed to Baron Hidaka to be brought to safety in Switzerland.
First of all, there is no reason to doubt the existence of the Mussolini diaries. It is unimaginable that a prolific journalist such as Mussolini would not indulge in the pleasure of writing down every evening what had happened during the day. There are also too many eyewitnesses and "courtiers" who saw him on those evenings intently writing in those notebooks, or even simply on loose sheets of paper. (Garibaldi, Mussolini: The Secrets of His Death, p. 19).

At any time previous to his assassination, Mussolini could have slipped over the nearby Swiss border.

Dongo on Lake Como where
Dongo on Lake Como where
Mussolini was murdered.

On the morning of April 28, Mussolini was assassinated in the village of Dongo, very close to the Swiss border.

Any time beforehand he could easily have slipped over the border into the British Crown Colony of Switzerland.

Mussolini was confident that his diaries and Churchill letters would save him from the hangman's noose.

The last photo of Mussolini
The last photo of Mussolini
taken on April 25, 1945.

Mussolini was confidant that his 2-way correspondence with Churchill would save him from a firing squad or the hangman's noose as a war criminal:

One of the clauses of the armistice treaty was the turning over of Mussolini alive to the XVth Army Group Command under General Mark Clark, who at the end of April 1945 had his headquarters in Siena. The British secret services, however, did not agree. They moved with great speed and efficiency as soon as they received the news that Mussolini had become a prisoner, in the early afternoon of April 27, of the partisans of the 52nd Garibaldi Brigade on the main square at Dongo. (Garibaldi, Mussolini: The Secrets of His Death, p. 117).

Mussolini was shot on the morning of April 28, 1945. The bodies–that of his mistress Claretta Petacci and the other Fascist leaders–were put on display and photographed hanging by the feet in Milan's Piazzale Loretto during the early morning of April 29, 1945.

Iconic photo of Mussolini and his mistress hanging upside down.
Iconic photo of Mussolini and his mistress hanging upside down.

On April 29, Mussolini, his mistress Claretta Petacci, and 15 other Fascists were displayed hanging upside down on meat hooks in Milan's Piazzale Loretto.

It was ironic that the man who turned the world upside down by restoring the temporal power of the Papacy should end up hanging upside down!!


Some of the Fascist who were killed
Photo of the Fascist who were killed
by the British Secret Service.

Had he surrendered to general Clark, he would have escaped such a gruesome fate. The grisly photographs were shown around the world and naturally enough "Communist partisans" were blamed for the brutal executions. It was the last drama of the Second World War in Europe.

Even though the British Secret Service won the race to eliminate Mussolini, they did not get all copies of his diaries or letters to Churchill.

Churchill visited Switzerland to regain his correspondence with Mussolini

In August 1946, Churchill arrived in the British Crown Colony of Switzerland for a 3-week "vacation." In reality, he was there to retrieve any copies of Mussolini's diaries and the top secret correspondence with his fellow dictator.

Churchill arriving in Zurich Station,
Churchill arriving in Zurich Station,
August 29, 1946.

Churchill's party lost the 1945 general election so he had to resign as prime minister.

In August 1946, freed from the glare of publicity, he decided to take a "vacation" in Switzerland.

Incredibly, in 1868, Winston's grandma Queen Victoria visited Lucerne, Switzerland, incognito, to lose weight and do some "painting."

One of Churchill's 1946
One of Churchill's 1946
Lake Como paintings.

The real reason for the visit was to collect and destroy all the incriminating correspondence with Mussolini. Churchill was still hounded by photographers who used ingenious methods to get close to his boat on Lake Como:

These multiple copies (photocopies and typed copies) of the papers prompted Churchill, after the war, to spend time first at Lake Como, staying at the Villa Apraxin at Moltrasio (the location of British army headquarters); and later on Lake Garda, where he spent longer periods on the lakefront at Villa Gemma (the same villa where Biggini had left copies of the documents the Duce had entrusted him with); and finally on Lake Lugano, at Osteno, on the Italian side, which could easily be reached from the Swiss side across the way. No one believed the "official" reason given for the strange vacations of the victor of the Second World War–to pass the time painting landscapes. The independent press (the Swiss newspapers, for example) was the first to turn it into a joke in cartoons where Churchill was shown throwing papers into a fireplace. (Garibaldi, Mussolini: The Secrets of His Death, p. 64).

His "vacation" must have been a success because all copies of the damning Mussolini-Churchill correspondence have disappeared.

The 2nd Italian dictator abdicated in 1946

On June 2, 1946, the Italian people voted overwhelmingly for a Republic. Hoping to saved the monarchy for his son Umberto II, he abdicated and left the country. Nothing could turn the clock back to the dark days of monarchy and Mussolini.

King Victor Emmanuel III
King Victor Emmanuel III
abdicated in May 1946.

In June 1946, the Italian people discovered what the Romans knew over 2,000 years ago–monarchial rule is a disaster for any people.

In May 1946, the physical and mental midget finally abdicated and moved to Alexandria, Egypt.

The ex-king went to meet the real Emmanuel in Dec. 1947, and was buried in St. Catherine's Cathedral, Alexandria, Egypt.

St. Catherine's Cathedral, Alexandria, Egypt.
St. Catherine's Cathedral,
Alexandria, Egypt.

The king retired to Egypt without a word of regret for Mussolini's dictatorship and the disaster that it had caused Italy.

Italy finally became a Republic after a referendum held on June 2, 1946, a day celebrated since as Republic Day. This was also the first time that Italian women were entitled to vote. Victor Emmanuel III's son, Umberto II, was forced to abdicate and exiled. The Republican Constitution was approved on January 1, 1948.

When will the Italians have a referendum to expel the "Swiss" Guard???

The referendum that was held in Italy in June 1946 did not specify that ALL of Italy should be a Republic. The status of the most important part of Italy–even the very capital itself–was not mentioned.

The Swiss Guard is the equivalent of the ancient Roman Praetorian Guard.
The "Swiss" Guard is the equivalent of the ancient Roman Praetorian Guard.

The referendum held in June 1946 did not specify that all of Roma should be a Republic.

Vatican City State is patrolled by foreign mercenaries known as the "Swiss" Guard who answer to their MI6 boss in London!!


Pope Francis surrounded
Pope Francis surrounded
by the "Swiss" Guard.

The original authentic Swiss Guard gained fame during the Sack of Rome in 1527. In May of that year, soldiers under Emperor Charles V invaded Rome, and tried to make a prisoner of Pope Clement VII. Pope Clement was about to grant a divorce to King Henry VIII of England. During the reign of Shake-speare, the strategically located country of Switzerland was added to the burgeoning British Empire.

Subsequently, the "Swiss" Guard became the "British" Guard and they were perfectly positioned to administer the Cup of Borgia to any recalcitrant Pope!!

History does go around in circles and repeat itself. The Papacy has occupied Rome since Emperor Constantine conquered the city in 312 AD. Since Emperor Constantine was born in York, England, what is preventing the Papacy from returning to its place of birth?

Statue of Constantine the Briton in York, England.
Statue of Constantine the Briton
in York, England.

If the Papacy returned to Britain, the "Swiss" Guard, in their clownish costumes, would no longer be needed.

No Pope would dare criticize the British government while a guest in their country.

York, England, where it all began in 306 AD.
York, England, where the Papacy
began in 306 AD.

Whatever the cost of the "Swiss" Guard down through the centuries, it was a good investment because no Pope excommunicated a British sovereign since Pope Pius V excommunicated Queen Elizabeth I in 1570.

Moving to York, England, would entail the construction of a massive library to hold the millions of volumes in the Secret Archives. This would have to be ABOVEGROUND and it would give the Britons an opportunity to see an authentic copy of Saint John Wycliffe's English Bible!!

Saint Paul–a Roman citizen by birth–gave this command to the Christians at Rome:

Let every soul be subject to the governing authorities. For there is no authority except from Elohim, and the authorities that exist are appointed by Elohim. Therefore whoever resists the authority resists the ordinance of Elohim, and those who resist shall receive to themselves damnation (Romans 13: 1-2).

The government at that time was run by the perverted Emperor Nero. St. Paul did not tell the Roman Christians to create their own state, but to pray for Nero, and be subject to him, as long as he did not compel them to do something contrary to Holy Scripture. The Jewish Messiah so succinctly summed up the Christian's relationship to the state:

And he said unto them, "render therefore unto Caesar the things which belong to Caesar, and unto Elohim the things which belong to Elohim" (Matthew 22:21, Mark 12:17, Luke 20:25).

Vital links


Aronson, Theo. Heart of a Queen: Queen Victoria's Romantic Attachments. John Murray, London, England 1991.

Arengo-Jones, Peter. Queen Victoria in Switzerland. R. Hale, London, 1995.

Boswordh, R.J. B. Mussolini. Oxford University Press, New York, 2002.

Buchanan, Sir George. My Mission to Russia and other Diplomatic Memories. Little, Brown & Co., Boston, 1923.

Cohen, Raymond. Saving the Holy Sepulchre: How Rival Christians Came Together to Rescue Their Holiest Shrine. Oxford University Press, New York, 2008.

Cullen, Tom. The Empress Brown: The True Story of a Victorian Scandal. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, 1969.

Choate, Mark I. Emigrant Nation; The Making of Italy Abroad. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MASS, 2008.

Del Boca, Angelo. The Ethiopian War 1935-1941. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1969.

Garibaldi, Luciano. Mussolini: The Secrets of His Death. Enigma Books, New York, 2004.

Gilmour, David. Curzon: Imperial Statesman. Farrar, Straus & Co., New York, 1994.

Hibbert, Christopher. Il Duce: The Life of Benito Mussolini. Little, Brown & Co., Boston, 1962.

Jones Raymond, The Battle of Adwa: African Victory in the Age of Empire. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MASS, 2011.

Mac Smith, Denis. Italy and its Monarchy. Yale University Press, New Haven & London, 1989.

Madden, Daniel M. Monuments to Glory: The Story of Antonio Barluzzi. Hawthorn Books, New York, 1964.

Olla Roberto, Il Duce and His Women. Alma Books Ltd., Richmond, Surrey, UK.

Royal, Robert. The Pope's Army: 500 Years of the Papal Swiss Guard. Crossroad Publishing Co., New York, 2006.

Rappaport, Helen. Conspirator: Lenin in Exile. Basic Books, Philadelphia, PA, 2010.

Stafford, David. Mission Accomplished: SOE and Italy 194345. The Bodley Head, London, 2011.

Tompkins, Peter. A Spy in Rome. Avon Books. New York, 1962.

Von Lang, Jochen. Top Nazi: SS General Karl Wolff. Enigma Books, New York, 2005.

Wylie, Neville. Britain, Switzerland, and the Second World War. Oxford University Press, New York, 2003.

Copyright © 2015 by Patrick Scrivener

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